你觉得你离诺贝尔奖最近的一刻是什么时候?

不知道知乎上会不会有未来的诺贝尔奖得主。大家可以来吐槽一下,觉得自己离诺奖最近的是什么时候?比如,自己的导师是曾经的诺奖获得者,或者同门有诺奖获得者,等等。-----本题已收录至知乎圆桌 » 2017 诺贝尔奖巡礼诺贝尔奖巡礼,更多「诺贝尔奖」相关话题讨论欢迎关注。
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I’ve been predicting this for years, and was thrilled to see his work recognized. He was one of my advisors in graduate school, and his influence has been constant and strong throughout my career.

He has shifted thinking in economics to recognize that people don’t make perfect calculations like a computer, that we’re all fundamentally human. But that does not mean we are unpredictable.

We just need to expand our toolkit a bit in thinking through the right models to use to predict behavior in specific situations. And we have witnessed a Behavioral Economics 2.0 blossom in the past decade, very much standing on the shoulders of Richard Thaler and the ideas he put forward (along with Cass Sunstein) in their book Nudge. In the world of poverty research, that’s meant a remarkable increase in the number of anti-poverty strategies that incorporate human psychology. For example, we know that people who want to save, but have trouble doing so, can when the circumstances are right. Sometimes that means designing a way of savings that incorporates human psychology.

As one example, we’ve used commitment savings to get around the problems of everyday temptation. People who choose to can commit to a savings goal and as they go along lock their savings away out of reach until they reach a certain goal or date. If they fail to reach it they agree to lose what they’ve saved.

Even though we’re not giving them anything material, just designing an economic tool – a savings account – in a way that uses human psychology and motivations, can help boost people’s economic outcomes.

Such commitment issues affect many facets of our lives, from saving to exercise to smoking to weight loss to studying. I started a website stickK.com (Richard Thaler discussed this website in his book Nudge, and I discuss it as well in my principles textbook with Jonathan Morduch).

On this website people are able to write commitment contracts to help themselves reach personal goals. This is an excellent example of a tool that embraces an expanded set of ideas from principles of economics to then help individuals make better decisions for themselves.

中文翻译:

多年来,我一直预测这将会发生,很高兴他的工作能够被认可。他是我在研究生院时的一位导师,他的影响持续且强烈地贯穿于我的整个职业生涯。

他把经济学思维转变为认识到人们不会像计算机那样做出完美的计算,即我们从根本上来说都是人,都会出现错误。然而,那并不意味着我们是不可预测的。

我们只需要稍微扩展一下工具箱,就可以想出用来预测特定情境下的行为的正确模型。在过去十年间,我们已经目睹了行为经济 2.0 的繁荣发展,这在很大程度上是依靠于理查德·泰勒和他在《助推》一书中提出的思想(与凯斯·桑斯坦一起著作)。在贫困研究中,那意味着包含人类心理的反贫困策略大幅增加。例如,我们知道那些想存钱但是很难做到的人在什么时候能够成功实现这一目标。有时,那意味着设计一种包含人类心理的存储方式。

举个例子,我们一直使用承诺存储来摆脱日常中具有诱惑性的问题。选择这种方式的人,会承诺一个存储目标,然后把积蓄锁起来,直到达到一个特定的目标或日期为止。如果最终没有实现那个目标,他们同意将会失去所储存的钱财。

即使我们没有给他们任何物质的东西,只是设计了一个经济工具——一个存储账户,通过运用人类心理和动机的方式,便能够帮助人们增加经济成果。

这样的承诺问题影响着我们生活的方方面面,包括存钱、运动、吸烟、减肥、学习研究等等。我创建了一个网站:stickk.com/(理查德·泰勒在《助推》一书中谈论过这个网站,我也和乔纳森·默多克在原理教材中对其有所探讨)。

在这个网站上,人们能够书写承诺合同,用来帮助自己实现个人目标。这是一个极好的例子:一种吸收了从经济学原理中扩展出的一系列想法的工具,能够帮助人们为自己做出更好的决定。

谢谢知友 @Ernestzhihu.com/people/yao-65)的翻译。